|Attention: Schneider & Shiffrin 1977|
Sample Data Files
|Citation||Schneider, W. and Shiffrin, R.M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84(1), 1-66. (pdf - very large)|
|Summary of Experiment||This experiment contrasts detection of similar and dissimilar items in a rapidly changing display. Participants are asked to memorize a set of letters or numbers, then identify members of that set of letters or numbers when they are presented rapidly in a larger set of letters or numbers. It is considerably easier to recognize and respond to a number in a set of letters than it is to recognize a letter in a set of other letters.|
|Related Studies in this Corpus||Stroop 1935, Navon 1977, Flowers, Warner, and Polansky 1979|
|Works this Study Cites||Atkinson, R.C., Holmgren, J.E., & Juola, J.F. Processing time as influenced by the number of elements in a visual display. Perception & Psychophysics, 1969, 6, 321-326.
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Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968.
Briggs, G.E. On the predictor variable for choice reaction time. Memory & Cognition, 1974, 2, 575-580.
Briggs, G.E., & Johnsen, A.M. On the nature of central processes in choice reactions. Memory & Cognition, 1973, 1, 91-100.
Broadbent, D.E. Perception and communication. London: Pergamon, 1958.
Broadbent, D.E. Decision and stress. London: Academic Press, 1971.
Corballis, M.C. Access to memory: An analysis of recognition times. In P.M.A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975.
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Egeth, H., Atkinson, J., Gilmore, G.& Marcus, N. Factors affecting processing mode in visual search. Perception & Psychophysics, 1973, 13, 394-402.
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Estes, W.K. Interactions of signal and bacikground variables in visual processing. Perception & Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 278-286.
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Estes, W.K., & Taylor, H.A. Visual detection in relation to display size and redundancy of critical elements. Perception & Psychophysics, 1966, 1, 9-16.
Feller, W. An introduction to probability theory and its applications. New York: Wiley, 1957.
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Ingling, N.W. Categorization: A mechanism for rapid information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 94, 239-243.
Jonides, J., & Gleitman, H. A conceptual category effect in visual search: O as letter or as digit. Perception & Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 457-460.
Kristofferson, M.W. Effects of practice on chacter classification performance. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1972, 26, 54-60. (a)
Kristofferson, M.W. When item recognition and visual search functions are similar. Perception & Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 379-384. (b)
Kristofferson, M.W. Types and frequency of errors in visual search. Perception & Psychophysics, 1972, 11, 325-328.
Kristofferson, M.W., Groen, M., & Kristofferson, A.B. When visual functions look like item recognition functions. Perception & Psychophysics, 1973, 14, 186-192.
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Moray, N.A. A data base for theories of selective listening. In P.M.A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975.
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Nickerson, R.S. Response times with a memory-dependent decision task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1966, 72, 761-769.
Rabbit, P.M.A. Ignoring irrelevant information. British Journal of Psychology, 1964, 55, 403-414.
Rabbit, P.M.A. Learning to ignore irrelevant information. American Journal of Psychology, 1967, 80, 1-13.
Ross, J. Extended practice with a single character classification task. Perception & Psychophysics, 1970, 8, 276-278.
Schneider, W. Selective attention, memory scanning, and visual search: Three components of one process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1975.
Shaffer, H., & Hardwick, J. Monitoring simultaneous auditory messages. Perception & Psychophysics, 1969, 6, 401-404.
Shiffrin, R.M. The locus and role of attention in memory systems. In P.M.A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975.
Shiffrin, R.M. Capacity limitations in information processing, attention, and memory. In W.K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognitive processes (Vol. 4). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1976.
Shiffrin, R.M. & Gardner, G.T. Visual processing capacity and attentional control. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 93, 72-83.
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Shiffrin, R.M., & Schneider, W. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, in press.
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Sorkin, R.D., & Pohlman, L.D. Some models of observer behavior in two-channel auditory signal detection. Perception & Psychophysics, 1973, 14, 101-109.
Sperling, G. The description and luminous calibration of cathode ray oscilloscope visual displays. Behavioral Research Methods and Instrumentation, 1971, 3, 148-151.
Sperling, G., Budiansky, J., Spivak, J.G., & Johnson, M.C. Extremely rapid visual search: The maximum rate of scanning letters for the presence of a numeral. Science, 1971, 175, 307-311.
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Sternberg, S. Memory scanning: Mental processes revealed by reaction time experiments. American Scientist, 1969, 57, 421-457. (a)
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|Works in Set that Cite this Study||Shapiro, Raymond, and Arnell 1994|
|Study Abstract||A two-process theory of human information processing is proposed and applied to detection, search, and attention phenomena. Automatic processing is activation of a learned sequence of elements in long-term memory that is initiated by appropriate inputs and then proceeds automatically without subject control, without stressing the capacity limitation of the system, and without necessarily demanding attention. Controlled processing is a temporary activation of a sequence of elements that can be set up quickly and easily but requires attention, is capacity-limited (usually serial in nature), and is controlled by the subject. A series of studies using both reaction time and accuracy measures is presented, which traces these concepts in the form of automatic detection and controlled search through the areas of detection, search, and attention. Results in these areas are shown to arise from common mechanisms. Automatic detection is shown to develop following consistent mapping of stimuli to responses over trials. Controlled search is utilized in varied-mapping paradigms, and in our studies, it takes the form of serial, terminating search. The approach resolves a number of apparent conflicts in the literature.|
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|Contact for More Information||Brian MacWhinney|