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Psycholinguistics: Boland, Tanenhaus, and Garnsey 1990
Boland1990.zip
Boland1990Stimuli.zip
Boland1990Data.zip
Boland, J.E., Tanenhaus, M.K., and Garnsey, S.M. (1990). Evidence for the immediate use of verb control information in sentence processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 413-432.(pdf)
 

This experiment investigates how people decide to which noun in a sentence the verb refers. For instance, in the sentence "John persuaded Mary to wash," Mary is washing, whereas in the sentence "John promised Mary to wash," John is washing. The experiment uses a paradigm where words accumulate on the screen one at a time to investigate where in a sentence disambiguation occurs.

Participants are supposed to read the sentence as quickly as possible, and press a button when (or if) it stops making sense (because the noun in the position the verb indicates is not appropriate for the verb: "the cowboy persuaded the horse to surrender").

MacDonald 1993

Boland, J.E., Tanenhaus, M.K., Carlson, G., & Garnsey, S.M. (in press). Lexical projection and the interaction of syntax and semantics in parsing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research.

Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.

Clifton, C., Jr., & Frazier, L. (1986). The use of syntactic information in filling gaps. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15, 209-224.

Crain, S., & Fodor, J.D. (1985). How can grammars help parsers? In D.R. Dowty, L. Kartunnen, & A.M. Zwicky (Eds.), Natural Language Processing: Psychological, computational, and theoretical perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Einot, I., & Gabriel, K.R. (1975). A study of the powers of several methods of multiple comparison. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 70, 574-583.

Farkas, D. (1988). On obligatory control. Linguistics and Philosophy, 11, 27-58.

Fodor, J.A. (1983). Modularity of mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Fodor, J.D. (1978). Parsing strategies and constraints on transformations. Linguistic Inquiry, 9, 427-474.

Fodor, J.D. (1988). On modularity in syntactic processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 17, 125-163.

Ford, M. & Dalyrimple, M. (1988). A note on some psychological evidence and alternative grammars. Cognition, 29, 63-71.

Frazier, L. (1987). Theories of syntactic processing. In J.L. Garfield (Ed.), Modularity in knowledge representation and natural language processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Frazier, L. (1989). Against lexical generation of syntax. In W.D. Marslen Wilson (Ed.), Lexical representation and process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Frazier, L., Clifton, C, Jr., & Randall, J. (1983). Filling gaps: Decision principles and structure in sentence comprehension. Cognition, 13, 187-222.

Garnsey, S.M., Tanenhaus, M.K., & Chapman, R.M. (1989). Evoked potentials and the study of sentence comprehension. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18, 51-60.

Huynh, H., & Feldt, L.S. (1976). Estimation of the box correction for degrees of freedom from sample data in randomized block and split-plot designs. Journal of Educational Statistics, 1, 69-82.

Marslen-WIlson, W.D., Brown, C., & Tyler, L.K. (1988). Lexical representations in spoken language comprehension. Language and Cognitive Processes, 3, 1-16.

Marslen-Wilson, W.D., & Tyler, L.K. (1987). Against modularity. In J.L. Garfield (Ed.), Modularity in knowledge representation and natural language processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McClelland, J.L. (1987). The case for interactionism in language processing. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and performance XII: The psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mitchell, D.C. (1987). Lexical guidance in human parsing: Locus and processing characteristics. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and performance XII: The psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mitchell, D.C. (1989). Verb-guidance and other lexical effects in parsing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 4, 123-154.

Nicol, J., & Osterhout, L. (1989). Re-activating antecedents of empty categories during parsing. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Nicol, J., & Sinney, D. (1989). The role of structure in coreference assignment during sentence comprehension. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18, 5-20.

Ryan, T.A. (1959). Multiple comparisons in psychological research. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 26.

Sells, P. (1985). Lectures on contemporary syntactic theories. Stanford, CA: CSLI.

Stowe, L.A., Tanenhaus, M.K., & Carlson, G.N. (1989). Filling gaps on-line: Use of lexical and semantic information in sentence processing. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Tanenhaus, M.K., Boland, J.E., Garnsey, S.M., & Carlson, G.N. (1989). Lexical structure in parsing long-distance dependencies. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18, 37-50.

Tanenhaus, M.K., & Carlson, G.N. (1989). Lexical structure and language comprehension. In W.D. Marslen-Wilson (Ed.), Lexical representation and process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Tanenhaus, M.K., Carlson, G.N., & Seidenberg, M.S. (1985). Do listeners compute linguistic representations? In D.R. Dowty, L. Kartonnen, & A.M. Zwicky (Eds.), Natural language processing: Psychological, computational, and theoretical perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tanenhaus, M.K., Carlson, G.N., & Trueswell, J.C. (1989). The role of thematic structures in interpretation and parsing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 4, 211-234.

Tanenhaus, M.K., Garnsey, S.M., & Boland, J.E. (in press). Combinatory lexical information and language comprehension. In G. Altman (Ed.), Cognitive models of speech processing: Psycholinguistic and computational perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Trueswell, J., Tanenhaus, M.K., & Garnsey, S.M. (1989). Semantic influences on parsing of thematic role information in syntactic disambiguation. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Tyler, L.K. (1989). The role of lexical representations in language comprehension. In W.D. Marslen-Wilson (Ed.), Lexical representation and process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Welsch, R.E. (1977). Stepwise multiple comparison procedures. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 72, 359.

Winer, B.J. (1962). Statistical principles in experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill.

{Cited By}
When a verb is followed by an infinitival complement, the particular verb determines whether its subject or object is the understood subject of the infinitive. Thus, the verb “controls” the interpretation of the infinitive (e.g. John promised/persuaded Mary to wash). Frazier and colleagues have argued that verb control information is not immediately accessed and used in sentence processing based on whole-sentence comprehension times. The studies reported here examined the use of verb control using an on-line plausibility monitoring task. Subjects immediately detected incongruities that depended upon their having correctly used control information, indicating that verb control information is rapidly accessed and used. It is argued that the results support an approach to language comprehension that emphasizes the importance of lexical representations in rapidly integrating many of the different sources of linguistic and nonlinguistic knowledge that need to be coordinated during language comprehension.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}
 

12-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney