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Psycholinguistics: Perfetti, Bell, and Delaney 1988
Perfetti1988.zip
Perfetti1988Stimuli.zip
Perfetti1988Data.zip
Perfetti, C.A., Bell, L.C., & Delaney, S.M. (1988). Automatic (prelexical) phonetic activation in silent word reading: Evidence from backward masking. Journal of Memory and Language, 27(1), 59-70.(PDF)
 

Participants were presented with a word, followed immediately by a mask. Of interest was whether the mask's similarity to the target would facilitate naming of the target. Masks were either not, phonemically, or graphemically similar. The experimenters found that the phonemically similar masks facilitated naming better.

Lukatela and Turvey 1994a, Lukatela and Turvey 1994b

Baron, J. (1973). Phonemic stage not necessary for reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 241-246.

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Frederiksen, J.R., & Kroll, J.F. (1976). Spelling and sound: Approaches to the internal lexicon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 361-379.

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Humphrey, G.W., Evett, L.J., & Taylor, D.E. (1982). Automatic phonological priming in visual word recognition. Memory & Cognition, 10(6), 576-590.

Jacobson, J.Z. (1974). Interaction of similarity to words of visual masks and targets. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 431-434.

Jacobson, J.Z., & Rhinelander, G. (1978). Geometric and semantic similarity in visual masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4(2), 224-231.

Just, M.A. & Carpenter, P.A. (1987). The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

McCusker, L.X., Gough, P.B., & Bias, R.G. (1981). Word recognition inside out and outside in. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 538-551.

McCutchen, D., & Perfetti, C.A. (1982). The visual tongue-twister effect: Phonological activation in silent reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 672-687.

Meyer, D.E., Schvaneveldt, R.W., & Ruddy, M.G. (1974). Functions of graphemic phonemic codes in visual word-recognition. Memoy & Cognition, 2, 309-321.

Naish, P. (1980). The effects of graphemic and phonemic similarity between targets and masks in a backward visual masking paradigm. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 57-68.

Navon, D., & Shimron, J. (1981). Does word naming involve grapheme-to-phoneme translation? Evidence from Hebrew. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 97-109.

Perfetti, C.A. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Perfetti, C.A., & McCutchen, D. (1982). Speech processes in reading. In N. Lass (Ed.), Advances in speech and language, Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press.

Petrick, M. S. (1981). Acoustic and semantic encoding during rapid reading. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.

Rumelhart, D.E., & McClelland, J.L. (1981). Interactive processing through spreading activation. In A.M. Lesgold & C.A. Perfetti (Eds.) Interactive processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rumelhart, D.E., & McClelland, J.L. (1982). An interactive activation model of contrast effects in letter perception. Part 2. The contextual enhancement effect and some tests and extensions of the model. Psychological Review, 89, 68-82.

Seidenberg, M.S., Waters, G.S. Barnes, M.A., & Tanenhaus, M.K. (1984). When does irregular spelling or pronunciation influence word recognition? Journal of verbal Learning and verbal Behavior, 23, 383-404.

Turvey, M.T. (1973). On peripheral and central processes in vision: Inferences from an information processing analysis of masking with pattern stimuli. Psychological Review, 80, 1-52.

van Orden, G.C. (1987). A ROWS is a ROSE: Spelling, sound and reading. Memory & Cognition, 15, 181-198.

Lukatela and Turvey 1994 A, Lukatela and Turvey 1994 B
Visual access to a printed word may be accompanied by a very rapid activation of phonetic properties of the word as well as its constituent letters. We suggest that such automatic activation during word identification, rather than only postlexical recoding, routinely occurs in reading. To demonstrate such activation, we varied the graphemic and phonemic properties shared by a word target and a following pseudoword mask. Graphemic (MARD) and homophonic (MAYD) masks, equated for number of letters shared with a word target (made), both showed a masking reduction effect relative to a control mask. There was an additional effect of the homophonic mask over the graphemic mask, attributable to phonetic activation. A second experiment verified this pattern of mask reduction effects using conditions that ruled out any explanation of the effect that does not take account of the target-mask relationship. We take the results to suggest that a phonetic activation nonoptionally occurs (prelexically) during lexical access.
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12-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney