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Psycholinguistics: Lukatela & Turvey 1994A
Lukatela1994a.zip
Lukatela1994aStimuli.zip
Lukatela1994aData.zip
Lukatela, G. and Turvey, M. T. (1994). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 1. Evidence from associative priming by words, homophones, and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(2), 107-128. HTML
 
This experiment compared the priming in a word identification task for synonyms (TOAD for FROG), words that sound like synonyms (TOWED), non-words that sound like synonyms (TODE), and controls that look like the synonym (TORD, TOLD). The prime is flashed on the screen, followed by a mask, then the word itself, and participants are supposed to name the word.
Lukatela & Turvey 1994B, Perfetti, Bell, and Delaney 1988

Aaronson, D., & Ferres, S. (1983). A model for coding lexical categories during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9, 700-725.

Carello, C., Turvey, M.T., & Lukatela, G. (1992). Can theories of word recognition reman stubbornly nonphonological? In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.) Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning (pp. 211-226). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

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Fleming, K.K. (1993). Phonolically mediated priming in spoken and printed word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 272-284.

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Humphreys, G.W., & Evett, L.J. (1985). Are there independent lexical and nonlexical routes in word processing? An evaluation of the dual-route theory of reading. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 689-740.

Humphreys, G.W., Evett, L.J., Quinlan, P.T., & Besner, D. (1987). Orthographic priming: Qualitative differences between priming from identified and unidentified primes. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and performance (Vol. 12, pp. 105-125). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Jared, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. (1991). Does word identification proceed from spelling to sound to meaning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 358-394.

Kolers, P. (1970). Three stages of reading. In H. Levin & J.P. Williams (Eds.), Basic studies on reading (pp. 90-118). New York: Basic Books.

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Lesch, M.F., & Pollatsek, A. (1993). Automatic access of semantic information by phonolgical codes in visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 285-294.

Lorch, R.F. (1982). Priming and search processes in semantic memory: A test of three models of spreading activation. Journal of Verbal Memory and verbal Behavior, 21, 468-492.

Lukatela, G., Lukatela, K., & Turvey, M.T. (1993). Further evidence for phonological constraints on visual lexical access; TOWED primes FROG. Perception and Psychophysics, 53, 461-466.

Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M.T. (1980). Some experiments on the Roman and Cyrillic alphabets of Serbo-Croatian. In J. Kavangh & R.L. Venezsky (Eds.), Orthography, reading, and dyslexia (pp. 227-247). Baltimore, University Park Press.

Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M.T. (1990a). Phonemic similarity effects and prelexical phonology. Memory & Cognition, 18, 128-152.

Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M.T. (1990b). Automatic and prelexical computation of phonology in visual word identification. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2, 325-343.

Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M.T. (1991). Phonological access of the lexicon: Evidence from associative priming with pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17, 951-966.

Lukatela, G. & Turvey, M.T. (1993). Similar attentional, frequency, and associative effects for pseudohomophones and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 166-178.

Lukatela, G., Turvey, M.T., Feldman, L.B., Carello, C., & Katz, L. (1989). Alphabetic priming in bi-alphabetical word perception. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 237-254.

Masson, M.E.J. (1991). A distributed memory model of context effects in word identification. In D. Besner & G.W. Humphreys (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 223-263). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

McClelland, J.L, & Rumelhart, D.E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375-407.

McCusker, X., Hillinger, M.L., & Bias, R.G. (1981). Phonological recoding and reading. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 217-245.

Michaels, C., & Turvey, M.T. (1979). Central sources of visual masking: Indexing structures supporting seeing at a single brief glance. Psychological Research, 41, 1-61.

Paap, K.R., Newsome, S.L., McDonald, J.E., & Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1982). An activation-verification model for letter and word recognition: The word superiority effect. Psychological Review, 89, 573-594.

Paap, K.R., & Noel, R.W. (1991). Dual-route models of print to sound: Still a good horse race. Psychological Research, 53, 13-24.

Paap, K.R., Noel, R.W., & Johansen, L.S. (1992). Dual-route models of print to sound: Red herrings and real horses. In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, morphology, and meaning (pp. 293-318). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Perfetti, C.A., Bell, L.C., & Delaney, S. (1988). Automatic (pre-lexical) phonetic activation in silent word reading: Evidence from backward masking. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 59-70.

Rosson, M. (1985). The interaction of pronunciation rules and lexical representations in reading aloud. Memory & Cognition, 13, 90-99.

Rubenstein, H., Lewis, S.S., & Rubenstein, M.A. (1971). Evidence for phonemic recoding in visual word recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 645-657.

Seidenberg, M.S., Waters, G.S., Barnes, M.A., & Tanenhaus, M.K. (1984). When does irregular spelling or pronunciation influence word recognition? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 383-404.

Smith, F. (1971). Understanding reading: A psycholinguistic analysis of reading and learning to read. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Van Orden, G.C., Johnston, J.C., & Hale, B.L. (1988). Word identification in reading proceeds from spelling to sound to meaning. Journal Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 371-385.

Van Orden, G.C., Pennington, B.F., & Stone, G.O. (1990). Word identification in reading and the promise of subsymbolic psycholinguistics. Psychological Review, 97, 488-522.

Lukatela and Turvey 1994B
In 9 experiments, a target word (e.g. frog) was named following an associate (toad), or a word (e.g., towed) or nonword (e.g., tode) homophonic with the associate. At brief (e.g., 50ms) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the 3 primes produced equal associative priming. At a long SOA (250ms), priming by toad was matched by tode but not by towed. Equal priming at brief SOAs by the 3 primes and no priming by orthographic controls (told, tord) suggests that lexical access is initially phonological. Towed priming less than tode at SOA = 250ms suggests that phonologically activated representations whose input orthography does not match the addressed spelling (available only for words) are eventually suppressed. Phonological constraints on lexical access precede and set the stage for orthographic constraints.
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12-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney