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Memory: Cooper and Shepard 1973
shepard.zip
shepardData.zip
Cooper, A.N., & Shepard, R.N. (1973). The time required to prepare for a rotated stimulus. Memory & Cognition, 1, 246-250. (pdf)
 
Participants are shown a letter, then a direction of orientation that it will appear in when it is presented as a target. They are given time to produce somehow a stimulus that they then compare to the target, rotated letter to see whether it is canonical or reflected.
Cooper, L.A., & Shepard, R.N. Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In W.G. Chase (Ed.), Virtual information processing. New York: Academic Press, in press.

Shepard, R.N. Studies of the form, formation, and transformation of internal representations. In Cogntive mechanisms. Washington, D.C. Winston & Sons, in press.

Shepard, R.N., & Metzler, J. Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science, 1971, 171, 701-703.

{Cited By}
Average time required to determine whether an alphanumeric character was presented in its normal version or as its mirror image increased from 500 msec to 1,000 msec as its angular departure from upright increased from 0 to 180 deg. However, when Ss already knew the identity of the upcoming character and when advance information as to its orientation was available for 1,000 msec, this reaction time was reduced to about 400 msec regardless of the orientation of the test stimulus. In this case, Ss claimed that they could prepare for the rotated stimulus by imagining the normal version of the designated character rotated into the indicated orientation and that they could then rapidly test for a match against the ensuing stimulus.
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{Data Instructions}
 

12-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney