Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Memory: Craik & Watkins 1973
CraikWatkins1973.zip
Craik1973Stimuli.zip
{Data Files}
Craik, F.I.M., & Watkins, M.J. (1973). The role of rehearsal in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 599-607.
 
In this experiment, participants are presented with lists of words that they are not required to remember. They are given a target letter prior to list presentation and are supposed to report the last word in the list that starts with that letter. At the end, they are asked to recall all the words. Of interest are all the words that were targets (whether they were recalled at the end of the trial or replaced by another word) and how long they were rehearsed (how many words and how much time intervened before they were recalled or replaced).
Craik and Tulving 1975

Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.) The psychology of learning and motivation. New York: Academic Press, 1968. Vol. 2, pp.89-195.

Bjork, R.A. Repetition and rehearsal mechanisms in models for short-term memory. In D.A. Norman (Ed.) Models of human memory. New York: Academic Press, 1970. Pp. 307-330.

Cooper, E.H., & Pantle, A.J. The total-time hypothesis in verbal learning. Psychological Bulletin, 1967, 68, 221-234.

Craik, F.I.M. The fate of primary memory items in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 143-148.

Craik, F.I.M., Gardiner, J.M., & Watkins, M.J. Further evidence for a negative recency effect in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 554-560.

Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671-684.

Glanzer, M., & Meinzer, A. The effects of intralist activity on free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1967, 6, 928-935.

Jacoby, L.L. Encoding processes, rehearsal, and recall requirements. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 302-310.

Jacoby, L.L., & Bartz, W.H. Rehearsal and transfer to LTM. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 561-565.

Meunier, G.F., Ritz, D., & Meunier, J.A. Rehearsal of individual items in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 95, 465-467.

Norman, D.A., & Rumelhart, D.E. A system for perception and memory. D.A. Norman (Ed.) Models of human memory. New York: Academic Press, 1970, Pp. 21-64.

Rundus, D. Analysis of rehearsal processes in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 89, 63-77.

Rundus, D., & Atkinson, R.C. Rehearsal processes in free recall: A procedure for direct observation. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 99-105.

Tulving, E. Subjective organization and effects of repetition in multitrial free-recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 193-197.

Tulving, E., & Colotla, V. Free recall of trilingual lists. Cognitive Psychology, 1970, 1, 86-98.

Waugh, N.C. Immediate memory as a function of repetition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1963, 2, 107-112.

Waugh, N.C. On the effective duration of a repeated word. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 587-595.

Waugh, N.C., & Norman, D.A. Primary memory. Psychological Review, 1965, 72, 89-104.

Watkins, M.J., & Watkins, O.C. Processing of recency items for free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974 (in press).

Craik and Tulving 1975
Several widely accepted models of memory postulate that the adequacy of an items registration in long-term storage is a positive function of its length of stay in the short-term store. However, when short-term storage times were measured, these times did not predict long-term recall or recognition. Two further experiments showed that neither the length of an item’s stay in short-term storage nor the number of overt rehearsals it received was related to subsequent recall. It is concluded that the “maintenance” and “elaborative” aspects of rehearsal can be clearly separated, and that the duration of rehearsal is related to long-term memory and learning only in the latter case. Maintenance rehearsal does not lead to an improvement in memory performance.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}
 

12-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney