Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Memory: Weldon and Roediger 1987
WeldonRoediger1987.zip
Weldon1987Stimuli.zip
Weldon1987Data.zip
Weldon, M.S., & Roediger, H.L., III (1987). Altering retrieval demands reverses the picture superiority effect. Memory and Cognition 15(4), 269-280.(PDF)
 
This experiment replicates Experiment 1 of the study. Participants are shown a set of word and picture stimuli, then asked to do word completion. The answers to the word completion questions should correspond to the words (or the word equivalent of the pictures) presented earlier.
Jacoby 1983
Babbitt, B.C. (1982). Effect of task demands on dual coding of pictorial stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 8, 73-80.

Blaxton, T.A. (1985). Investigating dissociations among memory measures: Support for a transfer appropriate processing framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Purdue University, Lafayette, IN.

Borges, M.A., Stepnowsky, M.A., & Holt, L.H. (1977). Recall and recognition of words and pictures by adults and children. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 113-114.

Craik, F.I.M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retenion of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294.

Davies, G.M., Milne, J.E., & Glennie, B.J. (1973). On the significance of "double encoding" for the superior recall of pictures to names. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 413-423.

Durso, F.T., & Johnson, M.K. (1979). Facilitation in naming and categorizing repeated pictures and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 449-459.

Durso, F.T., & Johnson, M.K. (1980). The effects of orienting tasks on recognition, recall, and modality confusion of pictures and words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 416-429.

Graf, P., & Mandler, G. (1984). Activation makes words more accessible, but not necessarily more retrievable. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 553-568.

Graf, P., & Schacter, D.L. (1985). Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal and amnesic subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 11, 501-518.

Graf, P., Shinamura, A.P., & Squire, L.R. (1985). Priming across modalities and priming across category levels: Extending the domain of preserved function in amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 386-396.

Graf, P., Squire, L.R., & Mandler, G. (1984). The information that amnesic patients do not forget. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 10, 164-178.

Intraub, H., & Nicklos, S. (1985). Levels of processing and picture memory: The physical superiority effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 11, 284-298.

Jacoby, L.L. (1983). Remembering the data: Analyzing interactive processes in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 485-508.

Jacoby, L.L., & Dallas, M. (1981). On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 306-340.

Kirsner, K., Milech, D., & Standen, P. (1983). Common and modality-specific processes in the mental lexicon. Memory & Cognition, 11, 621-630.

Kirsner, K., Milech, D., & Stumpel, V. (1986). Word and picture identification: Is representational parsimony possible? Memory & Cognition, 14, 398-408.

Kolers, P.A., & Roediger, H.L. (1984). Procedures of mind. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 23, 425-449.

Kroll, J.F., & Potter, M.C. (1984). Recognizing words, pictures, and concepts: A comparison of lexical, object and reality decisions. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 39-66.

Kucera, H., and Francis, W.N. (1967). Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.

Madigan, S. (1983). Picture memory. In C. Yuille (ed.), Imagery, memory, and cognition: Essays in honor of Allan Paivio (pp. 65-89). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

McGroch, J.A. (1942). The psychology of human learning. New York: Longmans, Green.

Morris, C.D., Bransford, J.D., & Franks, J.J. (1977). Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 16, 519-533.

Morton, J. (1979). Facilitation in word recognition: Experiments causing change in the logogen model. In P.A. Kolers, M.E. Wrolstead, & H. Bouma (Eds.), Processing of visible language (Vol. 1, pp. 259-268). New York: Plenum Press.

Nelson, D.L. (1979). Remembering pictures and words: Appearance, significance, and name. In L.S. Cernak & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 45-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Nelson, D.L., Reed, U.S., & McEvoy, C.L. (1977). Learning to order pictures and words: A model of sensory and semantic encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 3, 485-497.

Nelson, D.L., Reed, U.S., & Walling, J.R. (1976). Picture superiority effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 2, 523-528.

Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Paivio, A. (1973). Imagery in recall and recognition. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recall and recognition (pp. 103-129). New York: Wiley.

Paivio, A. (1983). The empirical case for dual coding. In J.C. Yulle (Ed.), Imagery, memory and cognition (pp. 307-332). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford.

Paivio, A., & Csapo, K. (1971). Short-term sequential memory for words and pictures. Psychonomic Science, 24, 50-51.

Paivio, A., & Csapo, K. (1973). Picture superiority in free recall: imagery or dual coding? Cognitive Psychology, 5, 176-206.

Paivio, A., Rogers, T.B., & Smythe, P.C. (1968). Why are pictures easier to recall than words? Psychonomic Science, 11, 137-138.

Pellegrino, J.W., Rosinski, R.R., Chiesi, H.L., Siegel, A. (1977). Picture-word differences in decision latency: An analysis of single and dual memory models. Memory & Cognition, 5, 383-396.

Roediger, H.L, & Blaxton, T.A. (1987). Retrieval modes produce dissociations in memory for surface information. In D.S. Gorfein & R.R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Ebbinghaus Centennial Conference (pp. 349-379). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Roediger, H.L., & Blaxton, T.A. (in press). Effects of altering surface features on priming in word fragment completion: Evidence for data-driven processing. Memory & Cognition.

Scarborough, D.L, Cortese, C., & Scarborough, H.S. (1977). Frequency and repetition effects in lexical memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3, 1-17.

Scarborough, D.L., Gerard, L, & Cortese, C. (1979). Accessing lexical memory: The transfer of word repetition effects across task and modality. Memory & Cognition, 7, 3-12.

Slamecka, N.J., & Graf, P. (1978). The generation effect; Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 4, 592-604.

Smith, M.C., & Magee, L.E. (1980). Tracing the time course of picture-word processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 373-392.

Snodgrass, J.G., & McClure, P. (1975). Storage and retrieval properties of dual codes for pictures and words in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 521-529.

Snodgrass, J.G., & Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 6, 174-215.

Tulving, E., Schachter, D.L., & Stark, H.A. (1982). Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 8, 336-342.

Tulving, E., & Thomson, D.M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 29, 352-373.

Warrington, E.K., & Weiszkrantz, L. (1970). Amnesic syndrome: Consolidation or retrieval? Nature, 228, 628-630.

Winnick, W.A., & Daniel, S.A. (1970). Two kinds of response priming in tachistoscopic recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 84, 74-81.

{Cited By}
In Experiment 1 subjects studied a mixed list of pictures and words and then received either a free recall test or a word fragment completion test (e.g., _ yr _ mi _ for pyramid) on which some fragments corresponded to previously studied items. Free recall of pictures was better than that of words. However, words produced greater priming than did pictures on the fragment completion test, although a small amount of picture priming did occur. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the picture priming was not due to implicit naming of the pictures during study. In Experiment 4 subjects studied words and pictures and received either the word fragment completion test or a picture fragment identification test in which they had to name degraded pictures. Greater priming was obtained with words in word fragment completion, but greater priming was obtained with pictures on the picture identification test. We conclude that (1) the type of retrieval query determines whether pictures or words will exhibit superior retention, and (2) our results conform to the principle of transfer appropriate processing by which performance on transfer or retention tests benefits to the extent that the tests recapitulate operations used during learning.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}
 

12-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney