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Bilodeau.zip
BilodeauData.zip
Bilodeau, E.A., Bilodeau, I.M., & Schumsky, D.A. (1959). Some effects of introducing and withdrawing results early and late in practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 142-144. (pdf)
Participants are asked to press the spacebar at the end of a predetermined time period and are ranked on how close they get to the correct time period. They are either given feedback at the beginning or not, and then they are given feedback later.
Bilodeau, E.A., & Bilodeau, I. McD. Variable frequency of knowledge of results and the learning of a simple skill. J. exp. Psychol., 1958, 55, 379-383.

Bilodeau, E.A., & Ferguson, T.G. A device for presenting knowledge of results as a variable function of the magnitude of the response. Amer. J. Psychol., 1953, 66, 483-487.

Dees, V., & Grindley, G.C. The effect of knowledge of results on learning and performance: IV. The direction of the error in very simple skills. Quart. J. exp. Psychol., 1951, 3, 36-42.

Hull, C.L. Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century, 1943.

{Cited By}

The ability of subjects to improve their performance in a task of estimation depends on the feedback, or knowledge of results (KR) that they receive.  In the original study, subjects were asked to draw a line, and given KR concerning the direction and degree of error.  The effects of KR were studied.  In this version, subjects  are asked to press a key to indicate a time interval. In some cases they are given KR (the number of milliseconds away from the correct amount of time), but in other cases they are given no feedback at all. The subjects improve accuracy when they are provided with KR.

{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}

05-Mar-2002

Brian MacWhinney